Basic networking

a)  If you were assigned to design a network to connect computers that use
multivendor operating systems (i.e. MS Windows, Unix, Apple, Novell,
etc) what would be the best network protocol for this implementation.
State your reason and describe each layer of the network protocol.

I would prefer to choose TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) as per my
network protocol to connect all the hardware and even using it to connect to internet. It is the best since most of the operating system using and support TCP/IP and it is popular which support global connectivity regarless what are the operating system is. Providing  an highway to each computer or other machine that using NIC and create a structure of data  for transmission and receiving data from each other. Due to easy and flexibility, It even support by variety of operating system such as linux and macOS. It is very convenient and reliable since all the operating system support this type of protocol. It is Widely use in daily system and in operation  to communicate among branch or even student with their tutor.

Basicly, it was a language or protocol of the enternet, yet can be apply as intranet or extranet. TCIP/IP protocol Consist of 4 layer of  program as shown below :
Application layer
  • Refers to standard network services like http, ftp, telnet as well as communication methods used by various application programs.
  • Also defines compatible representation of   all data.
  • HTTP (HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL) is using to transfer data throughout the internet or World Wide Web (WWW).
  • Ftp (file transfer protocol) as interactive file transfer.
  • Telnet is remotely control host through network without having sitting in front of the host terminal.

Transport layer
  • Manages the transfer of data by using connection oriented (TCP) and connectionless (UDP)   transport protocols and support multiple process.
  • Manages the connections between networked applications.
  • Connection-oriented (TCP) – connection must be established at the Transport layer of both systems before the application can transmit any data.
  • Connectionless (UDP) – All systems do not need to establish a connection with the recipient prior to data exchange. TCP is a more reliable form of data exchange than UDP.
Internet layer
  • Manages addressing of packets and delivery of packets between networks.
  • Fragments packets so that they can be dealt with by lower level layer (Network Interface layer Network).
  • IP (internet protocol) is responsible to addressing, routing, and the fragmentation and reassembly of packets.
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is responsible for the resolution of the Internet layer address to the Network Interface layer address such as a hardware address etc.
Network Interface layer
·         The Network Interface layer (or the Network Access layer) is responsible for placing TCP/IP packets on the network medium and receiving TCP/IP packets off the network medium.
·         It’s also including LAN technologies such as Ethernet and Token Ring and WAN technologies such as X.25 and Frame Relay.
·         Ability to adapted new technology such as (ATM) Asynchronous Transfer Mode
·         The Ethernet  is the most popular network access layer protocol. The hardware operates at the physical layer and its medium access control method (CSMA/CD) operates at the datalink layer.

b) Discuss the advantages of Wireless network against Wired (fix) network.

It seems since the technology become cheaper and easily to produce with massive production every day, more and more demand from consumers to have wireless technology for their daily uses. It includes remote control for television, stereo and even for garage and a house gate. But, in terms of wireless networking, the technology is growing bigger and bigger everyday and become more sophisticated and it is very convenient to use and it does have an advantages. Others useful stuff that comes with wireless is due to security problem, wireless developer has developed basic future for security and ability to give permission to particular MAC address or particular hardware to access through the network. Basically it operates when entering MAC address of each wireless NIC that connect to the network. When someone try to enter the network, the AP (access point) will determine which particular MAC address has the permission, if not the AP would denied the connection. In terms of range, wireless offers a larger coverage of an area depends of the hardware, the price and the needed of hardware to be places at the right point. The AP points means that people can connect using PDA, cell phone laptop and others wireless device without having to worry about messy wired hardware crawling over the floor since its wireless. Due to easy and flexible connection, slowly it can improved future communications and leads to faster transfer of information within businesses and between partners/customers, and not to mention it is a good and Greater flexibility and mobility for users such as office based wireless workers can be networked without sitting at dedicated PCs. Due to massive demand of market it become cheaper and it means we can  reduced costs - relative to 'wired', wireless networks are, in most cases, cheaper to install and reasonable maintenance fee. White this, we hope in the future more and more wireless technology will emerge to make our world more wired free.


(a) The word “networking” has been used by people of different disciplines.
As a student of networking, you are being asked to explain the meaning of
networking, in particular, the differences between social networking and
computer networking. Using 150 to 200 words, explain the meaning of
these two terms with more emphasis on the computer network.

Networking could be a complex matter as a brain itself ,it can be social networking or computer networking and can evolved much bigger than we can imagined .Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighbourhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is possible in person, especially in the workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most popular online where people can meet other people without having to be face to face .The simplest way  to describe social networking is a map of relevant things that happen among all the node being studied .According on one research ,shown that it’s operate on many levels and play a role to solved problems of an organization .For an example of social networking, face book in one of the famous social networking at his time where almost all individual had their account up ,even a school kid do have account for it.
In terms of computer networking ,it’s refer to a network where number of computers and other device connected by a set of communication path among users and at the same times ,user can share resources .One of the main purpose of computer networking is to share files ,data and other information where the technology were firstly developed by United state departments of defences to connect a number of computers .Computer networking can be classified by software technology and hardware used to connect individuals device to the network , such as wireless LAN ,optical fibre ,Ethernet and power line communication( .Easily It can be divided into 2 major group, wired or wireless technology .The hardware used in wired technology can be in form of twisted pair cable ,coaxial cable and optical cable. Among hardware that wireless connected including communications satellite ,cellular system ,wireless LAN Bluetooth and wireless web which consist pagers PDA’s and other portable communication device.

(b) Using a few sentences and diagrams each, explain on what do you know
about the following networking terms:
i. Local area network (LAN),
ii. Metropolitan area network (MAN), and
iii. Wide area network (WAN).
Give examples as to where they are used in Malaysia or the neighbouring

Local Area Network
LAN is a system of network computers can be developed in a small room or a set of building A LAN can be configure as a bus ,which nodes are connected in a branch structure , a ring where computer connected to 2 computers to form closed circuit and a star topology which several computer is linked directly to a main host .Normally all this type of technology has been adopted by all nation in the world as per it’s easy to maintain and can be implement at any places, school ,lab ,library or even in a check point at the border of countries.
                         bus topology                                                                                                  

                                                                                   star topology

ring topology

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
MAN using 100% technology that evolved from LAN and WAN to satisfied it needs .Relatively it is a new class of network which serves a role almost similar to ISP but only apply for corporate users with huge LANs .There are 3 important characterise to compared MANs and others type.
1)The network -size does matters,covers an area the size of city and sometime as small group of buildings.

2)Generally owned by a consortium of users or by single network provider who sells the service to the users.

3)Often acting as ahigh speed network use to provide s share connection to other network within WAN.

For example in Malaysia ,this type of technology has been implement in government sector such as at Putrajaya where all the department were connected using this type of technology to communicate to each building ,even at Prime Minister official residence.

Metropolitan Area Network

Wide Area Network (WAN)
Normally WAN refers to the network that connected by 2 or more LAN connection by subsystem such as router .Always refer to network that covers a large geographical surrounding and use circuits to connect intermediate nodes .Transmission rate could be or will be typically from 2Mbps to 625Mps and sometime can be more than we can think .Various places have been constructed using this kind of technology such as large corporation ,military networks ,banking and airline networks .Normally all this technology has been adopted by the whole world not just in Malaysia or U.S only .For example Malaysian ISP which is Telekom or TMNET are using this kind of  network to give support and service throught Malaysian region.

(c) Network security is one of the important aspects in protecting business
transactions over the Internet. One method of securing network is by using
digital signature technology. Explain in detail how digital signature can be
obtained and used in e-commerce transactions.

Data signature is an e-signature that use to encrypted the identity of the user who send of a message , document and possibly to ensure the content has been sent is unchanged . 
It can be apply to any kind of message either encrypted or not so that all part of sender identity are just at the right place without intact .The process started when the draft were send to it recipient and wanted the data to be secure and still in its original form and sizes ,using appropriate software or tools we can create a secure identity in form of hash (mathematical summary) for that particular data .Once we create the identity of the data ,now we can use a private key obtained from previous process to encrypted the hash .While this process started ,the “reformed” encrypted hash are now your digital signature for the message to the recipient .The recipient ,just to making everything from data of message ,he/she makes their own hash just to receive from you .Then using the key that obtained from that process they decrypted the hash from you part and to compare weather the hash is match .If the hash is match ,now the message can be a valid document.

In term of security ,there are many ways that it can be attach together to hardening the system especially  in e-commerce where an additional security sometimes can make a huge impression and big output despite its small form .Now days ,the use of digital signature in electronic transaction become more potential in growth and needs .In order to secure transaction acroos the continent by internet ,data encryption consist of 4 function which is

-authentication allows both side merchant and customers ensure that their dealing with whom .This is mandatory when sending details of credit card and bank statement to merchant and for the merchant to verify the owner of the document or message.

            -making sure the data or message receive un touch during transmission of third party.

            -prevent both side from denying their ever receive or sent an order or message.

            -the encryption policy ensure that all data and  message been read by third parties for using the info for their own benefits. 

Method that always been practise usually private-key encryption (secret-key or symmetric encryption ) in which users share a common key ,public-key encryption (known as asymmetric encryption) which the keys used for encryption and decryption the data .Throughout all this process generally have their unique advantages and disadvantages and so secure transaction protocol.

1 . Introduction to Network Protocols
-       Understanding TCP/IP: A Clear and Comprehensive Guide
-       by Libor Dostálek and Alena Kabelová 
-       Packt Publishing © 2006 Citation
2 . Wired vs wireless
3 . Hooking Up Wired and Wireless Networks
-       Windows Vista: Beyond the Manual
-       by Jonathan Hassell and Tony Campbell 
-       Apress © 2007 Citation
4 . Science and technology : local area network  [online]
                  - [“n.d”]
5 . The use of network [online]
                       - [“n.d”]
6 . What is wide area network [online]
                       - [“n.d”]   
7 . Digital signature
                       -Atreya ,M . Hammond , B . Paine ,S . Starret ,P . Stephen wu . (2002) .Digital                           signature . Brandon A. Nordin . Berkeley ,California U.S.A.



You are the president of the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) at an urban school. At the last association meeting, many parents expressed their concern about the poor performance of their children, particularly in Mathematics, Science and the English Language. They felt that the school should work harder towards improving the teaching and learning of these subjects. The PTA could assist but the association does not have enough funds (money) to carry out its projects for the school. You wish to speak about this problem and suggest some solutions at the forthcoming meeting.

(a) Which of the following speech types will best describe your speech: informative,
persuasive, negotiation, or argumentative speech? Give reasons for your answer.

As for my types of the speech ,I would say the best is informative speech .According to
John Jacobson, Motivational Speaker and Editor this type of communication would increase information, knowledge and understanding in particular subject such as in above situation. Explaining to audience that drug is more distractive than a positive cause is an example of informative speech .Talking about beneficial effect of caffeine and the negative effect is also one of the informative speech .The reason I choose informative speech is to inform that all parents and teachers that they should be brief about what’s happened in their children education and what are the subject that should student focus on and as for the teachers to identified how to improve their techniques on teaching methodology .It is also to inform parent and teachers that if the school want to carry out with some project regarding this matters ,they have to come up with some ideas to raise their fund as the association need some contribution for the project due to lack of funding .within this information ,the PTA have been clarified the situation in the school that need cooperative in both side ,teachers and parents .Furthermore ,with all this information ,parents and teachers would be more concerned in their children and student performance in study ,either in school or at home.
Example of Informative Speech
Source :
(b) Briefly outline the problem that the PTA needs to address. What actions can
the members of the association take?

The problems that has been identified by PTA was poor performence in Math ,Science and English Language. Along with current situation, the association is not enough fund to help in any project which been highlight by school to carry any activities .Even mention above that the association things that the school are not trying their best to handle the situation .To resolve this matter ,the school should ask teachers in those subject to identified weeker student and best student to join them in a group .With this action the teachers encourage all the student to participate in group discussion, where best student can assist the weeker student in study and automaticly all student helping each others to obtain maximum quality in learning and social .To encourage teachers to give the best in their teaching ,The PTA could present a small contribution for their efford  in teaching.To do so, the school would provide a hall for PTA to held  activities such as carboot sales, education exibition and used book sale and any other method to raise fund for the association. With all this ,even parents could assist in school by Volountering in teaching program where parents can be a co - teachers to assist in a class. “If you raise your children to feel that they can accomplish any goal or task they decide upon, you will have succeeded as a parent and you will have given your children the greatest of all blessings.” -- Brian Tracy

(c) What form of oral communication will your intended PTA speech be? Briefly
describe the model of communication that clearly explains how your public
speech could work most effectively.

It would be the best public communication ,best known as public speaking.It is designed and Intended to assists in strategies that could be combined to reach an expectation in communication more effectively .Harold Laswell (1948) describe the communication process consist of 5 element which is who says,what,to whom,with what,effect? In term of public communication, it’s a form to express an idea to many people at the same time,quick and efficient .It can focus on a small group audience from few to millions people at a time .A speaker could  brief few people in discussion group to persuade the listerner to act and think in a certain way.In this case ,public communication can be more effective when the speaker ensure how to and know the basic priciples to persuade and entertain audience to listen and focus more on the speech rather then sleeping and yawning. It is crucial to masterd some of basic elements of effective public speaking to be able to influence, persuade or even entertain while communicate with audience. For example ,a tutor standing in front of the class, lecture and brief the student about the subject and persuade them to improve in many ways according to the teaching method. Slightly putting some joke and trivia question  in teaching would make a student fell freash and more focus in study for the whole period of hours.   

teacher clipart

Example of Public communication
Source :

(d) What is the social context of your speech and who are the participants?
Assuming that your audience will be multicultural, analyse its needs so that
these can be addressed in the speech.

The social context of the speech is in Parent and Teachers meeting and the participant was also parents and teachers. In context of this urban schools in large measure reflect the characteristics of the environment in which they are located. It is evident that public schools in urban areas face significant issues that are qualitatively different from those confronting schools in rural or suburban contexts. It is a jungle in city where time is almost more value than the gold. In surrounding with hustle and bustle, parent had less time to spend with their children and to monitor their performance. Due to a traffic jam almost every day it’s a time consuming for student arrived at home in time and this making them tired and hardly to concentrate in study at home, same to parent who are working late, lack of time to see their kids learning progressing. Not to mention that the student have to wake early in the morning just want the catch a bus or others transportation, sometimes as early as 5 in the morning. It was a stress enough to come home late in the evening and it became more stressful when have they to wake up early .The technologies are playing an important role in this day’s. Regardless we are in the time of modern technologies where they are no boundaries with internet, phone, fax, technologies in games, all of this contribute and could be a problem for student who are in urban school. Without supervision from parents, this will be a major problem for children in study if it’s not been control from early stage. It’ not just about parents or student, it involved all who are directly connected to student even in community of particular places. All should play their roles to encourage student to do the best in study, to support them in every way that they could do best. In Malaysia, educational is very important not just in social standard but its show how far we could go in education because education is for a life.  To counter the problem, it should be view in a wider aspect such as who are involved in the process, what are tools needed to reflect the outcome which they could use in daily life. A long as the solution could and make less stress to student, to parents and teachers, it was good. Firstly, parents should have making more contact with their kids ,in term of communication put some affords  to contact them by phone at home even parents still at the office ,just to say hi and asking what’s happen at school. Concern about their feelings towards study especially on critical subject such as math and science. Parents are encourage to not neglected about bed time , ensure them to sleep and wake in time , it would make study in a fresh body and mind. If possible do ask their teacher about their progress, in academic and sports. And the most important part is, all parent, society, teachers and among student show their support towards each others.

(e) Prepare an outline of your speech (see e.g. Topic 8.4.4, p. 174) keeping in mind the
purpose of your speech (Topic 9). Use complete sentences to express your main points
and supporting statements in the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion or any other
content structure that may be appropriate. E.g.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (Google this to find out more). Indicate in the outline
what audio/visual aids and supporting evidence you may use to make your speech more

to get audience to listen
"I want to hear what you have to say"
to get audience to feel a need or want
"I agree. I have that need/want
to tell audience how to fill need or want
"I see your solution will work"
to get audience to see benefits of solution
"This is a great idea"
to get audience to take action
"I want it"

Purpose of the speech :
1 - To inform parents and teacher about poor performance in several subject such as math, sciences and English.
2 - Highlight the problem facing by treasury and why it happens
3 - To improved teaching and learning on particular subject.
4 - To suggest solution to tackle the problem occurred efficiently.
Introduction :
1 - Present the statistic chart of particular subject showing the downgrade in grade for those subjects using learning aid with help of power point presentation.
2 - Layout a report of treasury which has been decreased recently. Distribute to member of associate by printed copy.
3 - Briefly about the situation of their children performance and for teachers to focus more on particular subject.
4 - Bring up a simple solution yet effective to associate member to tackle problem and to encourage all individual to participate in order to maintain the good grade for the sake of student and school reputation.
Body :
First Main Point
1 - The chart shown grade performance of  3 critical subject since 2005.According to the chart, it shown rapid decreased on all particular subject starting from 2006 and until 2009 .
2 - Treasury report shown last year expenses of association was over budget due to many activities held by the association and school also due to sponsorship of student for participate in tournament across the country. Report also shown that ,some of the members are not paying their association fee’s regularly.  
3 - Creating attention by telling all members the situation in school education which is decreasing rapidly .The problem has been identified is lack of focus ,possible cause of poor concentration and tiredness from late night study and have to wake up early in the morning to catch the bus to school.
4 - Parent and teachers should concern about student feelings towards study especially on critical subject such as math and science. Parents are encourage to not neglected about bed time, ensure them to sleep and wake in time, it would make study in a fresh body and mind. If possible do ask their teacher about their progress, in academic and sports..
Second Main Point
1 - The school administration worried if the situation continue, and if something are not to be done to control the situation,  it would bring a bad reputation to the school and teachers itself.
2 - To prevent treasury to continued decreasing their fund ,all member are advise to settle associate fee’s A.S.A.P every month and all sponsorship and associate activities temporarily halt.
3 - Others possible cause is lack of parents participant in daily monitoring of their children education which is influence the student to not doing their best in study.
4 - Parent can be assistant to a teacher in teaching, automatically there involved in their children education naturaly.

 To counter the problem, all members should view in a wider aspect such as who are involved in the process, what are tools needed to reflect the outcome which they could use in daily life. As long as the solution could and make less stress to student, to parents and teachers, it was good. Firstly, parents should have making more contact with their kids ,in term of communication put some affords  to contact them by phone at home even parents still at the office ,just to say hi and asking what’s happen at school. If possible do ask their teacher about their progress, in academic and sports. And the most important part is, all parent, society, teachers and among student show their support towards each others.
Closing Statement
"Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in each of us there is a private hope and dream which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for everyone and greater strength of the nation." -- John F. Kennedy
"Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn." -- Benjamin Franklin


1 . John Jacobson (2007) Motivational Speaker and Editor [Online]
-          Available : [“n.d”]
2 . The Public Relation Handbook
-          Theaker, A. (2001). The Public Relation Handbooks.Great Britain.Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon.
-   [“n.d”]                          
4. Public Health : Social context and Action
-     Scriven, A. , Garman, S.  (2007). Public Health : Social context and   Action.Berkshire,England.Open University Press.  
      - [“n.d”]
- [“n.d”]
7 . Brian Tracy [online]
- [“n.d”]


SMS (Short Message Service) is a short message in text form that life evolved in a world of cellular telecommunications. Overview of this facility is not much different from the text message service from the previous device, i.e. a pager which has now become absolute, even nearing extinction. History SMS appeared in December 1992. The message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in GSM cellular operator owned by Vodafone in the UK. Towards the age of  it 18 years in service, SMS more and more used by customers from various circles. Starting from the children who are still sitting in elementary schools to adult who have started up in business and college student.
Since the beginning of unfamiliar world community to use SMS, the survey mentions that 95% of text messages sent in 10 seconds. Also mentioned, as many as 55% of mobile phone users worldwide are using SMS more than once a day, are young people aged around 17 years old or younger, therefore, it is undeniable SMS is the key equipment in the modern world of communications technology in line with current technological developments become more advanced day after day.

“In the name of Allah, Most Gracious and Most Merciful”
Thanks to ALLAH for the gift of spiritual and physical strength to me to complete this paper even with the short time, from accompanied my aunt to his permanent rest after suffering from breast cancer to the illness of beloved mother who is lying sick at home since the deceased of her sister, still with the permission of God, I’ll managed to finish and produced this research paper on time and hopefully it’s not the first and the last.
I would like to thank to all the volunteers, friends, Mr. Andrew our tutor, family and those who helped in the preparation of this thesis and also last but not list, to the writers of the articles and web sites that provide such research materials and government agencies and non government who provide me assistance in the form of information and support.
Truly forever in my debt, I would like to wish my greatest gratitude and love to my families for being understanding and helpful. Thank you! Thank you! Thank you! And a million thanks to all of your prayer.

Table of Content


Chapter 1       LITRETURE REVIEW                                                      1
1.1.1        The Good
1.1.2        The Bad
1.2              Impact to language

            1.1       Method


It all started 1844 when a gentleman named Innocenzo Martini who claimed that the idea of “speaking telegraph” which is known as telephone today, were discovered by himself not by Alexander Graham Bell. Back then they are others inventors such as Antonio Meucci  , Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison. According to the law, Innocenzo lost dozen of law suits by its rival which is Edison and Bell co. After few years Bell’s patent his product and named the product electromagnetic telephone and in 1877, Edison files his patent on a carbon transmitter. After 15 years struggling, in 1879 he finally wins within numerous of lawsuits and throughout the amazing evolve in communication we now had a new product called telephone.
Since the beginning of modern communication, we have continuously looking and searching for better technology, user friendly, fast and efficient way to communicate through either the gadget or the software itself. One of the technologies which are a big discovery was SMS on mobile phone. Huge telecommunication all over the world racing to developed new technology to satisfied consumers, new way  to impress people to use their product since the discovered of mobile phone by Dr. Martin Cooper in 1973 and he is the first person who made a first mobile phone call to his business rival Joel Engel ,head of researcher from Bell’s Lab. Along the growth of mobile phone technology SMS, short for Short Message Services were the most widely used data application in the world with 2.4 billion active users , or 74% of all mobile phone owner. According a research from Pew (Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project) in 2008, stated that half of U.S teens or user send 50 or more SMS per day equivalent to 1500 a month which is a huge number in term of SMS texting.SMS is an accidental success in technology where the discovery of it took the industries by surprise. In earlier discovery, few people argue SMS is a failure due to hard to use and lack of technology to continued on it used, but every generation has it triumph, and in 2000 the SMS continued to give impact in industries where it successfully continued the service in Europe where the deployment of WAP. In fact, SMS only become the preferred way of communication for citizen in the whole world thanks to its fast and reliable service of providers, nowadays all people can afford a new brand mobile phone with basic features which is SMS.
Short Message Service, better known by SMS (short message service) is a very popular service among mobile phone users in the country. SMS was launched commercially in Malaysia for the first time in 1995.

1.1.1    The Good
There are many people who are skeptics, worried or even horrified by abbreviation used in text message or SMS such as ‘lol’, meaning ‘laugh out loud’ or ‘u r l8, which is stand for ‘you are late’ . It has been quite sometimes we heard that the SMS isn’t bad at all but with solid proof and positive result according to research and review, they may have a positive side to it.
As not many people realize, English itself is the language that contains many words, terms and manner of service in accordance with the need to follow and even the exits word are load of exception. Not to mention the phonics method can only help to read a small number of words at such amount. An  example can be the word that have letters such as ‘ought’-ought , thought , through ,rough and bough which is all pronounce differently from others not to mention the word that have same letter ,different sound and different meaning such as present ,it can be a ‘gift’ or to indicate time or to show  something to people like in the classroom.
Simplification in spelling also the reason why people do texting in short form. Noah Webster said there are letters could be deleted to simplify and to make it easier, such as ‘u’ in some of word that contain ‘u’ letters, for example, favour and colour. Therefore, there are some other reasons that need to be analyzed before we agreed that SMS do corrupt the language. In a simple manner, we are in hustle and busy and everything we do, we want it to be fast and efficient and in term of talking communication, SMS does come in handy but in appropriate way and undeniable it can be very creative on the way to express our feelings. Therefore no more than last, there is still a good reason that sometime it can be good with appropriate manner.

1.1.2    The bad
Some people may not agree that SMS is just a creative way in terms of mobile communication, it is simply the evolution of the language, however, If the use of SMS format been used in a formal written, then it can be consider it is corrupting the language, not just in English but believe it or not it happens in almost all sort of language in all over the world. According to Prof Madya Dr. Supyan Hussin (2008), there are two categories of SMS language corpus cannot be used in formal writing as to mislead readers and damage the standard language, short vowels or consonants loss and common abbreviations kolokia.
The first category involves the abbreviated words are consistent, one or two vowels and consonant letters dropped well short practice is dependent on the creativity of the user and the context of the conversation that occurred, and the second category, the words used in language-based SMS and driven for intimate personal relationship between mobile phone users involved. This category can be considered a threat to language identity, if not controlled and been monitored frequently. The example words such in Malay, 'ari' for 'hari', 'pastu' (lepas itu), 'lak' (pula), 'amacam' (apa macam), 'fon' (telefon), 'cite'(cerita), 'kuar' (keluar) dan 'nape' (kenapa). As for in English ‘b4’ (before), ‘gtg’ (got to go), ‘f2f’ 9face to face), ‘l8’ (late) ,’lol’ (laughing out loud) and many other words that can be shortened to becomes more simple and faster, if used SMS abbreviations in formal writing, of course the integrity of the language will be disputed and should avoid, and contained in the initial stages so it will not be something that will detrimental to the future.
1.2       IMPACT OF SMS
As the world notice, SMS services on most mobile phone allowed the sending of short message between mobile or other gadget phones that support the use of the technologies. SMS has caused chaos in literature but in the way of  interesting  journey towards important technologies and as a must device in society since it became popular, but indeed there are some element that had consequence from the use of SMS where sometimes it make the big impact on society.

1.2.1    Political
Since the era of technological discoveries SMS from a mobile phone, it’s already deriving a lot of political influence in the world wide. For example, in 2003, president of the Philippines in the forced retreat from government rule after his defeated by SMS campaign carried out and millions of messages were received from all over the country, which cause him to step down from the throne to avoid political riot and chaos. Sometimes SMS were also used in order to put the situation under control, for example, SMS were used to control protest rallies in 2004 while the tragedy of Madrid train bombing still under investigation. In some others nation SMS also used for showing a protest against political issue, such as in United State, the protest was among 2 political candidates, from the Democratic and the Republican.
In 2005 in china, the nationalists of Chinese spreading rumors’ about when and where the anti-Japanese demonstration would be taking place in 2005. It was the easier to use SMS to spread word due to its reliability and efficient and it is the one and only an electronic device that is no direct monitoring from the government.
Due to it easy access, efficient ,cheap ,  easily available, easy to use, inexpensive and capable of ownership, it is an interface that provides the biggest impact on the organization of government apart from other electronic media such as radio, television and media.
1.2.2    Business
In the entertainment industry, international or homeland, too many entertainment programs available on TV either the national television station or private. Among the show consists of foreign and local programs like ’American Idol’,’ Amazing Race’, ‘Akademi Fantasia and ‘Sehati Berdansa’. Average count requires its own audience as a civil jury that they need to send SMS to ensure the participants through their choice to remain in the show until the end. Thus, SMS technologies are one of the marketing technique and plan in the business to ensure profits double along with the satisfaction to the consumers.
Marketing and business world today has moved a step further by using SMS in the business, plan strategies which can be shared among the investors and to inform the client about new products and service that is provided by the company. There are reasons why businessman chooses SMS rather than others source of strategies plan, few of the reason as below:

Higher chances that SMS reach to the recipient         
-Up to 50% of e-mail subscribers may not receive the message due to an e-email protection system and filtering process. Unlike SMS, there are no boundaries to it expansion towards recipient as long as it’s been charged by providers. The only thing that stop the message to be send to recipient is it’s been facing a network difficulties due to small errors and due to a roaming service to others nations. But this is a rare occasion and normally in can be resolve in short time.
SMS always been read by recipients    
-Either it a spam or an advertisement, people do intended to open and read SMS once is arrived. This indicates and a guarantee that the SMS is reaching its purpose and the message has been send.

SMS always been read instantly
People carried mobile phone almost everywhere, even in toilet. Therefore undeniable once the message was receive, instantly the recipient can open and read the SMS.

SMS create an immediate response
Users more likely to respond to SMS unlike e-mail that sometimes it took a week for recipient to open and read it. SMS users intend to read and respond to the message once the tone is ringing regardless who are the senders and from where. 
In general, no more or less, SMS can boost up sales and increase sales and marketing to higher level with appropriate plan, strategies, and efforts towards the goals and achievements.
1.2.3    Social development
1.         In 2003, under syaria law, Malaysian court decided ,a man may divorced his wife via text messaging as long as the message send were clear, readable and people who read it can understand.

2.         After the devastating raid of Katrina in Florida, most of resident were failed to contact their relatives using traditional landline phones, alternatively they manage to reach each other’s via SMS until the network been repaired.

3.         In August 14, 2005, there are report that immediately before the Helios Airways Flight 522 crash, a passenger intentionally sending a SMS telling that the pilot is dead while illustrate that the face turn all blue, in order to get intention from the media for an interviews .

There are several other sectors that influenced by SMS, such as the impact on education at the primary level to university which will give its side effects on learning. For example, in 2002 , a cheating scheme was detected during exam at local university in Maryland where 12 student were caught cheating in exam via SMS, and in 2003, Hitotsubashi University in Japan, 26 student were given failed mark for they receiving SMS in the middle of exam containing answer on their cell phones. This indicates the sectors without proper supervision and attention could lead to some of miss lead of SMS technologies. SMS technology may and would change the way of human life, think, move, learn and  interact with people who are now slowly change with the passage of time and  increasingly sophisticated technology.      



Small case study had been conducted to support the argument and the question surveys are base as follow:

-          Volunteers consisted of 30 participants comprising 15 males and 15 females who are from different races, religion and ancestry from different levels of affluence.
-          Question survey, consisting of a series of questions will be distributed to volunteers. There are 10 simple questions about the use of SMS language in daily life that must be answered by volunteers, also questions that need volunteers to express language or improve existing language into SMS language.

-          Survey results showed 27 of 30 volunteers agreed that the SMS is damaging language and 2 volunteers who did not agree and 1 independent.

Almost all volunteers are working and they do have a steady income per month, however, there are students who are practical training certain places which is depend on scholarship  and often  use SMS services. Above, are the analysis and  information being analyses.


The fact that SMS is corrupting our language are undeniable according to research that indicate 27 over 30 people participate on a survey done local government in Malaysia, claimed that SMS do corrupting our language, not just in Bahasa but it’s spread throughout the nation all over the world and language. From 30 people only 2 people are disagreeing with the statement and 1 person is neutral.        
Research involved 15 female and 15 male and all of them age between 20 to 35 years where most of them are working and have their own mobile phone. Up to 29 of them using short abbreviation and most of them agree that SMS do corrupt the language. Base on the survey question indicated that most of the participant do used short term for their daily texting. The entire participant does intensively shorten the words, abbreviation and mixed language in their SMS and commonly using English and Bahasa Malaysia. Usually among friends and normally by phone call when communicate with their parent.



Survey question
Not Applicable
D o you have mobile phone?

Do you SMS

When you used SMS, did you shorten up the words, abbreviate the words or chunk the words

Did you shorten up in Bahasa Melayu words in SMS

Did you shorten up in mother tongue words in SMS

Did you shorten up English words in SMS

SMS in other language(s)?

If yes, name the language

Did you mix up more than one language in your SMS?

If yes, name the language
Malay and English

Will SMS help to revive your mother tongue language

Not Applicable


The challenge of the small screen size and its limited character space has motivated the evolution of an even more abbreviated language than that which emerged in chat rooms and virtual worlds before (Döring, 2002: 14). 

The state of the art technology and offers change all; we cannot deny that, the longer the world needs a simple, quick and easy to use. We can’t deny the use of SMS is and will damage the language if the use does not regulated monitor. However, used of  SMS will apply to all citizens of the world anywhere and is the fastest medium to communicate or use as a means of marketing tactics.SMS kept young adults connected to one another and allowed them to explore relationship.
Due to fear of these symptoms, people should understand and know when and where it should not contain in everyday use, and it is a creative thinking in terms of use and if used at the right time and place. Institute of Education should emphasize that the use of prohibited use SMS language in writing and monitor the use of cellular phones while on the premises of the examination to prevent copying or storing student responses in the mobile phone.

As for the electronic media, the use of SMS must be reduced because it involves financial and moral people thought of the audience. Therefore, it should bear in mind that if used is continued, the quality of the result of a show is definitely involved in the disputed because the decision is based from the delivery of SMS from the audience and not from the value of a professional jury.

Therefore it can be concluded that SMS are corrupting our language as it is just a way of communication.


#include /*stdio.h - standard buffered input/output */

int main(void)     /*the main function is where a program starts execution*/ 


          printf ("\t\t       OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA       \n");
          printf ("\t\t      GRADING SYSTEM PROGRAMMING      \n");
          printf ("\t\t    Computer Programming(CPCP2103)    \n");
          printf ("\t\t                 \n");
          printf ("\t\t                   \n");
          printf ("\t\t                       \n");
          printf ("\t\t   E-Tutor : En. Yuzery Bin. Yussof   \n");
          printf ("\t\t Group Tutor : Ahmad Zaki B. Abdullah \n");
          printf ("\t\t                             \n");
          printf ("\t\t      Semester SEPTEMBER 2010         \n");
          printf ("\t\t--------------------------------------\n");   

printf ("\n\n\n)");

int LoopMatapljrn, LoopPelajar, NoPelajar,  NoMatapljrn, IDPelajar, Markah, TotalMarkah   ;
float  Purata, TotalMarkahP, NoMatapljrnP; 
/* variable declared once */

printf("Sila Masukkan Jumlah pelajar : ");    /* command for next action */
scanf("%d", &NoPelajar);                      /* display command after input command */
printf("Sila Masukkan Jumlah MataPelajaran: ");/*command for next action */
scanf("%d", &NoMatapljrn);                    /*display command after input command */
  do                                            /* loop function do while start statment*/
  printf("\n\t>>Masukkan ID Pelajar : ",LoopPelajar);
      LoopMatapljrn = 0;                             /**/
      TotalMarkah = 0 ;                              /**/
      {                                              /**/  
      LoopMatapljrn++;                               /*Loop funtion while only*/
      printf("\t\tMasukkan Markah Untuk Matapelajaran #%d: ",LoopMatapljrn);
      scanf("%d", &Markah);
             if ((Markah>=80) && (Markah<=100))       /**/
                printf( "\t\tGrade: A \n\n" );        /**/
        else if ((Markah>=70) && (Markah<=79))        /**/
                printf( "\t\tGrade: B \n\n" ) ;       /**/
        else if ((Markah>=60) && (Markah<=69))        /**/
                printf( "\t\tGrade: C \n\n" ) ;       /*select statment if and else*/
        else if ((Markah>=50) && (Markah<=59))        /**/
                printf( "\t\tGrade: D \n\n" ) ;       /**/
        else if ((Markah>=40) && (Markah<=49))        /**/
                printf( "\t\tGrade: E \n\n" ) ;       /**/
        else if (Markah<=39)                          /**/
                printf( "\t\tGrade: F \n\n" ) ;       /**/
       TotalMarkah += Markah ;          
    printf("\t\tJumlah Markah = %d\n",TotalMarkah);
    TotalMarkahP = TotalMarkah;                    /*variable declared*/
    NoMatapljrnP = NoMatapljrn;                    /**/
    Purata = TotalMarkahP/NoMatapljrnP ;           /* formula count for Purata */
    printf("\t\tPurata Markah = %.2f\n\n",Purata);
             if (Purata>=40)
                printf( "\t TAHNIAH!!!!ANDA LAYAK UNTUK MENERUSKAN PENGAJIAN :)\n\n" ) ; 
  }while(NoPelajar>0);                               /*end for funtion loop do while*/
  system("PAUSE");                                 /*function to halt console from exit
                                                       and display a notice 'Press any key to continue'*/


Draw an Extended-Entity-Relationship-Diagram (EERD) for the following problem. Show all entities, relationships, cardinalities and optionalities. You may use any additional entities.
This question is intended to help you design a proper Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) for a database system. This can be acquired by reading the description of each system carefully and identifying all relevant information. Read the scenario given carefully.
The Sri Murni Specialist Hospital (SMSH) administration decided to automate their hospital.  


The purpose of these observations and reviewing is to determine the best solution as well as a comparison for system upgrading among the two websites e-learning in these countries in terms of hardware criteria, consumer advocates, affected systems, software, hardware specifications and capabilities to delivered users needs. The observation of the website portal functionality is not to questioning the ability of the webmaster or portal developer but as suggestions or observations to the upgrade in the future event.
System Requirement
Below is a basic component or the requirements of 2 portal system randomly selected, the Open University and the University of the Islamic antarabangsa.The element involved often be the guide into updates, upgrade and modification of a system or site requirement portal. The system requirement plays an important role in technology either in hardware or software. Tools involved in getting all the information for this particular portal are :
Description of portal (Comparison)
1)      Open University Malaysia or OUM is the 7th Malaysian private university owned by the Multimedia Technology Enhancement Operations Sdn. Bhd, a consortium of 11 public universities in Malaysia. It leverages on the quality, prestige and capabilities of its owners - a consortium of 11 Malaysian public universities. Currently, the main campus is located at Jalan Tun Ismail, Kuala Lumpur. In addition to this, there are 61 learning centres throughout Malaysia, out of which 10 are regional learning centres. Initially opening its doors to 753 learners in 2001, OUM has over 79,000 students in 70 academic programmes in its eighth year of operations, a record of some sort. Through OUM, working adults can upgrade their knowledge and skills for the purpose of career progression, career transition or pursuing lifelong learning ambitions, all within the comfort of their homes.
2)      Inspired by the worldview of Tawhid ad the Islamic philosophy of the unity of knowledge as well as its concept of holistic education, the IIUM aims at becoming a leading international centre of educational excellence which seeks to restore the dynamic and progressive role of the Muslim Ummah in all branches of knowledge for the benefit of all mankind.



Front page

thumbnails (1).jpg


1)Registration number - D5A000474
2) Created on 26 march 2003 according to website, the expired date would be in 2011.
3)Domain registry provider is MYNIC
4)Primary name server – - 
Secondary name server - - 
5)IP address - (at recent sniffing)
1)Registration number – D5A001345
2) Created on 11 May 2007 and will be expired on 11 May 2011.
3)Domain provider is MYNIC
4)Primary name server - -
Secondary name server – –
5)IP address – (at recent sniffing)

With a capacity is advanced from windows, it can be concluded that the portal is using linux os as a portal platform.
With a capacity is advanced from windows, it can be concluded that the portal is using linux os as a portal platform

1)Apache 2.2.9(unix version)
2)PHP 5.26
3)Server latest update on Sat 20 nov 2010 12:55 utc
4)file extension .php
1)Apache 2.2.4 (Unix version)
2)mod_ssl 2.24
3)Openssl 0.9.8d
4)file extension .shtml, but it could be a  combination with php due to using css format.

The portal can be access by student, tutor
And staff with certain special permission according to the group user. The initial login url for staff can only be given to staff only and there are no shortcuts buttons for url in portal to navigate to the staff login page. Therefore, it too has different url address.  


The portal can be access by student, tutor
And staff with certain special permission according to the group user.
Student and staff login were put separately from portal itself and have it own url address and the shortcut is there in portal for easy access.


Speed upload and download

Estimated Load Time
DSL 768
0 s
0.01 s
0 s
0 s
0 s
Average Speed
Data Volume
Size with HTML
Size without HTML
0 s
0.07 kB
0.07 kB
0.03 kB

*result depend on ISP speed,at recent ,the test were conducted using basic streamyx line and as usually streamyx policies is “best afford”.

Estimated Load Time
DSL 768
0.76 s
5.20 s
0.38 s
0.29 s
0.10 s
Average Speed
Data Volume
Size with HTML
Size without HTML
1.9 s
51.19 kB
36.42 kB
11.68 kB

*result depend on ISP speed,at recent ,the test were conducted using basic streamyx line and as usually streamyx policies is “best afford”.

Daily traffic percent for a week time.

Top Search query for

Percent of Search Traffic

oum mylms
open university malaysia
open university
open university malaysia oum

Search Query                      1 Month Decline 

Search Query
1 Month Decline 

Daily traffic percent for a week time

Top Search query for

percentage of search traffic

Search Query
1 Month e of search traffic to


Web site general test
  • TOTAL_HTML - Congratulations, the total number of HTML files on this page (including the main HTML file) is 1 which most browsers can multithread. Minimizing HTTP requests is key for web site optimization. Y
  • TOTAL_OBJECTS - Congratulations, the total objects on this page (including the HTML) is 1 which most browsers can multithread in a reasonable amount of time. Minimizing HTTP requests is key to minimizing object overhead (see Figure II-3: Relative distribution of latency components showing that object overhead dominates web page latency in Website Optimization Secrets for more details on how object overhead dominates web page latency.
  • TOTAL_SIZE - Congratulations, the total size of this page is 72 bytes. This page should load in 0.21 seconds on a 56Kbps modem. Based on current average web page size and composition trends you want your page to load in less than 20 seconds on a 56Kbps connection, with progressive feedback. Ideally you want your page to load in 3 to 4 seconds on a broadband connection, and 8 to 12 seconds for the HTML on a dialup connection. Of course, there's always room for improvement.
  • HTML_SIZE - Congratulations, the total size of this HTML file is 72 bytes, which less than 50K. Assuming that you specify the HEIGHT and WIDTH of your images, this size allows your HTML to display content in under 10 seconds, the average time users are willing to wait for a page to display without feedback.
  • MULTIM_SIZE - Congratulations, the total size of all your external multimedia files is 0 bytes, which is less than 10K.

  • TOTAL_HTML - Congratulations, the total number of HTML files on this page (including the main HTML file) is 2 which most browsers can multithread. Minimizing HTTP requests is key for web site optimization. Y
  • TOTAL_OBJECTS - Warning! The total number of objects on this page is 30 which by their number will dominate web page delay. Consider reducing this to a more reasonable number. Above 20 objects per page the overhead from dealing with the actual objects (description time and wait time) accounts for more than 80% of whole page latency. See Figure II-3: Relative distribution of latency components showing that object overhead dominates web page latency in Website Optimization Secrets for more details on how object overhead dominates web page latency. Combine, refine, and optimize your external objects. Replace graphic rollovers with CSS rollovers to speed display and minimize HTTP requests. Consider using CSS sprites to help consolidate decorative images. Using CSS techniques such as colored backgrounds, borders, or spacing instead of graphic techniques can reduce HTTP requests. Replace graphic text headers with CSS text headers to further reduce HTTP requests. Finally, consider optimizing parallel downloads by using different hostnames or a CDN to reduce object overhead.
  • TOTAL_IMAGES - Warning! The total number of images on this page is 24 , consider reducing this to a more reasonable number. Recommend combining, replacing, and optimizing your graphics. Replace graphic rollover menus with CSS rollover menus to speed display and minimize HTTP requests. Consider using CSS sprites to help consolidate decorative images. Use CSS techniques such as colored backgrounds, borders, or spacing instead of graphic techniques to reduce HTTP requests. Replace graphic text headers with CSS text headers to further reduce HTTP requests. Finally, consider optimizing parallel downloads by using different hostnames to reduce object overhead.
  • TOTAL_CSS - Congratulations, the total number of external CSS files on this page is 2 . Because external CSS files must be in the HEAD of your HTML document, they must load first before any BODY content displays. Although they are cached, CSS files slow down the initial display of your page. Remember to place CSS files in the HEAD and JavaScript files at the end of the BODY to enable progressive display.
  • TOTAL_SIZE - Warning! The total size of this page is 281061 bytes, which will load in 62.02 seconds on a 56Kbps modem. Consider reducing total page size to less than 100K to achieve sub 20 second response times on 56K connections. Pages over 100K exceed most attention thresholds at 56Kbps, even with feedback. Consider optimizing your site with Website Optimization Secrets, Speed Up Your Site or contacting us about our optimization services.
  • TOTAL_SCRIPT - Congratulations, the total number of external script files on this page is 2 . External scripts are less reliably cached than CSS files so consider combining scripts into one to minimize HTTP requests, or even embedding them into high-traffic pages. Placing external JavaScript files at the bottom of your BODY, and CSS files in the HEAD enables progressive display in XHTML web pages.
  • HTML_SIZE - Congratulations, the total size of this HTML file is 39117 bytes, which less than 50K. Assuming that you specify the HEIGHT and WIDTH of your images, this size allows your HTML to display content in under 10 seconds, the average time users are willing to wait for a page to display without feedback.
  • IMAGES_SIZE - Warning! The total size of your images is 226022 bytes, which is over 100K. Consider switch graphic formats to achive smaller file sizes (from JPEG to PNG for example). Finally, substitute CSS techniques for graphics techniques to create colored borders, backgrounds, and spacing.
  • SCRIPT_SIZE - Congratulations, the total size of all your external scripts is 4679 bytes, which is less than 8K.
  • CSS_SIZE - Caution. The total size of your external CSS is 11243 bytes, which is above 8K and less than 20K. For external files, ideally keep them less than 1160 bytes to fit within one higher-speed TCP-IP packet (or an approximate multiple thereof). Consider optimizing your CSS and eliminating features to reduce this to a more reasonable size.
  • MULTIM_SIZE - Congratulations, the total size of all your external multimedia files is 0 bytes, which is less than 10K.

Functional requirement
The purpose of OUM portal is to be a new way access of interaction between student and tutor and tutor with staff. It’s not only convenience for all parties but it has become a key role to all students around the world to interact among student and to share knowledge in studying. Not only it became social places for study but OUM has developed a new way of e-learning which is all student can study everyway in the world without having carrying the books all around, but student can access the portal in any possible existent  way such as internet using broadband or by phone that support web access. As a centre of education, OUM portal has been a centre of announcement for OUM student all around the world.
1) Announcement system
Dissemination of information today is very important, especially when it involves information that is vital, OUM portal itself has a system of information delivery is subject to some parts of which it is a function, the spread information. Inside OUM portal itself there are many different types and ways of information to be submitted, including information on the pass through the “pop-up windows” which by the tables in the student into the LMS will automatically pop up from the portal will be the “new window” which will direct students attention to read the announcement. Typically, this method is used for important announcements such as changes in the registration and collection of modules or courses on the latest news involving the financial policy of the university. In addition, there is also the presentation of information through the dissemination of the information contained on the display at “home” is located on the left portal (Latest announcement). Usually, at the announcement parts , involving the critical things that easily viewed by students and tutors, including :

a) Registry announcement
- Particularly, in this part, almost all announcements are about notice and information from registry office or from HQ where it can be read by student. Sometimes HQ would sent an info regarding how the exam would be conduct and sometime the info is regarding how the question would be, but most of the info are regarding notice or reminder from HQ office.
b)Exam announcement
-Usually it’s all about examination, including date of exam, location of the exam and schedule of exam. Not to mention and to announcement of release of result of exam.
c) University announcement
-Consist information regarding university info such as project announcement, information from university such as how to submit assignment through internet and many more.

Thus, in era of information technology and in time of hustle and bustle, the most important way to send information is through email system where now days almost all human being has their own email and some of them had more than 1 email. Therefore in portal OUM itself, all student, staff and tutor were provide with their own email with extension of  which has an interface of gmail. With a convenience of cell phone, student can access their email and read email from where ever and whenever without having sitting in front of computer.

2) Library
The Tan Sri Dr. Abdullah Sanusi Digital Library offer students and faculty many different ways to become familiar with the Library and its resources. Library instruction teaches students to obtain information more efficiently and to evaluate it more thoroughly.
To get along with the technology of information, the purpose of library in OUM website is to having the student to learn and to access additional literature beside the text book provided in every possible way and to maximize the use of the library. Thus, the library modules consist of 3 sub module that relate to the Digital Library of Tan Sri Abdullah sanusi. It lead to a new separate windows when click, there are :
a) Past year exam papers
-student can access and review past exam paper that appear when click and open in a new windows. Such that, the student can choose which faculty there are or there can look by searching option which can be access when click to the search button, and again new window appear. Student can choose by search criteria, search by string, main category or sub category. In search by string there has an option either search by title, filename, file size etc. If student had the course code, there can just simply put the code in search string and it will navigate straight to the file. Once the file is located, it state how many time the file was downloaded, the upload date, filename and size, not to mention type for download file. All file can be download in pdf format, so student should have pdf reader in order to read the file.

b) Digital Library

TSDAS digital library is the main core to dig additional literature regarding courses. The library It self contains thousand of book that located in all HQ in Kuala Lumpur. The purpose of this library is to allowed student or tutor to access information about the book they want before they attend to the library to borrow. Thus this can save time to search from rack to rack. By search from the digital library, student can search for info about where the book is located, how many time it been borrowed, is the book are still available and much more information about particular require book.
On left corner, situated at the top is search library where student can search anything from book, article, thesis and other types of literature not to mention exam papers. The option consist search by title, author, subject and others. Much more info can be obtained by clicking browsing button.
c) iRadio segment (e-library)
The mission is to quality supplementary mobile learning materials, specifically podcast, for OUM learners and iRadio listener. The source of iradio content with high quality video and audio that suitable to the student and available for download for future reference. radio.jpg

Student can choose from 7 available facultys from main page and to the right is download button where student can download itune to their computer. For those who are not familiar with module iradio, there is a help desk button to navigate to the video of help. iRadio cast is basically and audio file that integrated with rss feed, due to this integrate, learner can here the cast on going and everywhere.
3) Email service
Email (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication. Email messages are usually encoded in ASCII text. Email is one of the best ways to send. To share and to spread information across the world in a blink of eye. Due to this OUM has provided a single email to the respective student, staff and for tutor that the email had the same interface with Gmail email. It is the well known free email provider in the world that provide the biggest storage at the time it was launch and it is one of the fastest email. This is much easier for learner to fully make used of email that had familiar interface with gmail.
As we all know, the function of compose mail is to write message to whom we want to send the message to, inside it learners can attach file to be send along with the message, normally in zip format or compress file. On the left panel, oum gmail base email also provide the contact module same with gmail, allowing learners to save their contact buddies and tutor for future references. Learners also can interact with co-learner by using ‘chats’ module, it is the other way for learner could socialize among them.

Inbox is where all the email receive were stored and the new email will be highlighted to indicate unread and the email has capable to follow up particular email that had been mark or label to create special status to that particular email. ‘Starred’ with the symbol of star is to make an email easier to find, it indicate favourite email.
Task is like a to do list is computer and as a note pad to remind learner what is going on what is next thing to do. It is convenience to learner to put some note or to do list.
As OUM has appointed Gmail as their email server, thus it is the good platform for email due to it’s familiar content and functionality same as the ordinary Gmail. So far Gmail has been the fastest email in the world.

Non Functional requirement
It is basically a constraint on putting the functional requirements on real event. However, it is considered to be a compulsory for the purpose of requirement of management and it need to be tested as a mandatory. It may be in other model requirement where they have been added as high-level requirement, included the stakeholder need list, the project overview and the use of case document.
Craig’s definition of a usability review:
“A usability review is an evaluation of a user interface versus common usability best practices and heuristics by a trained usability professional.”
Basically OUM portal have many kind of visitors every day and every minute, most of them are student and staff of OUM ,and many of them are login to get to student LMS or for staff page, and many of student is already know how to navigate around the page due to highly usage of the portal for their references. One occasional user that are not so familiar with OUM is end user which is come to the portal maybe looking for some info for next intake, regardless the age, most of learner are adult learner so the website of OUM had made it as simple as could so that all age of suffers would be easy to navigate through the portal and easy enough to search for info. As example the important information that always looking by the surfers such as ‘about us’ , the faculty’s, news and event and contact person are easily to reach by user and it a typical standard places to put all that kind of information in one horizontal bar.
All information regarding post graduate, the entrance fees, carers and many more were put just below the bar of previous horizontal menu, but with much more interactive icons styles. It’s indicate that this is the more important information and as webmaster the developer had knew that this kind of info should not be put in normal icons but should be striking the view, and it’s a brilliant idea to put the menu along with some interactive icon that can interact user to click and to view without having to search or browse for info.interac.jpeg

Overall observation on the first page of OUM portal, indicate that the developer had really thought about the needs of user, not just for student but for tutor and staff. OUM portal and with others website had typically put the same idea that to put the news and future event on front page on the website ,this is practically normal as the user constantly looking the fast and reliable way to had the information as quick as possible.
On the left of the portal, a shortcut to the others type of information such as photo gallery, intake status, mobile learning and careers. This is easy for surfers to navigate to get info regarding particular module that he or she wanted, and OUM has the newest module at this time called mobile learning where learners can maximize the technology of phone in communication technology. So far for normal user that seldom come to get information and had a little knowledge about navigate through website page, it is very easy and convenience way to get info about something in OUM portal.
b) security
Currently, there are all kinds of attacks from hackers around the world, and this shows the web security is important to ensure that the website can not be in this state that vulnerable to hackers. So far large company had improved their website and reinforced to prevent attacking form hacker.
As mention on the top comparison between 2 learning website, it show that OUM had medium security and mostly vulnerable to hacker that constantly looking for a new target ,but fortunately OUM had small issue regarding security. According to the website that act as a hacker, there are few port that should be closed and secure, and to compare between OUM site and others site, there a lots of information can get while sniffing to the website such as paid by whom, download and upload, bandwidth and some others info that indicate website OUM had some issue of security. To compare the result of OUM portal about security, we can compare OUM site with where the portal itself is the target of hackers who are learning hacking by hacking this site, and at the same time the webmaster had to constantly monitor the loops whole. Compare with OUM the result of sniffing truly illustrate that the hacker website turn up to be just a few info, and this is type of security that OUM website should had long ago.  

c) Performence
Capability to open from one page to one page at fast rate is one of the key elements to provide good services in any kind of service line, same goes in building a website or portal. According to, speed test provider, it shows that OUM website had a good speed test. In this scenario, where conduct a serial of speed test from its own server to OUM website to determine how many ping bit where transfer per second. On this particular test, and the ability internet services provider, that the results of speed test conclude that OUM speed test is below:
Average Speed
Data Volume
Size with HTML
Size without HTML
0 s
0.07 kB
0.07 kB
0.03 kB
This is conclude the review of OUM website portal with the the revision on functional requirement and non-functional requirement and comparison between OUM website portal and IIUM website.



#include   /* buffer standard untuk input dan output*/

          printf ("\t\t       OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA       \n");
          printf ("\t\t         Hifi Reataurant Menu         \n");
          printf ("\t\t       Data Structure(CBDS2103)       \n");
          printf ("\t\t                                      \n");
          printf ("\t\t                                      \n");
          printf ("\t\t                                      \n");
          printf ("\t\t    E-Tutor : Hazlinda Bt Ghazali     \n");
          printf ("\t\t   Group Tutor : Mr. Yap thin Peng    \n");
          printf ("\t\t                                      \n");
          printf ("\t\t        Semester JANUARY 2011         \n");
          printf ("\t\t--------------------------------------\n");

char food1[] = "Plain Egg";
char food2[] = "Bacon and Egg";
char food3[] = "Muffin";
char food4[] = "French Toast";
char food5[] = "Fruit Basket";
char food6[] = "Cereal";
char beverage7[] = "Coffee";
char beverage8[] = "Tea";

double item1 = 2.50;
double item2 = 3.45;
double item3 = 2.20;
double item4 = 2.95;
double item5 = 3.45;
double item6 = 0.70;
double item7 = 1.50;
double item8 = 1.80;
double tax;
   struct menuitem
char name[15];    /*char name[ ] is  for declaration & initialization only*/

double price;

struct menuitem item[8];
/*int i=menu untuk item tersenarai
int ItemNo=menunjukkan item yang dipesan
int amount=menunjukkan kuantiti pesanan
int i;
int ItemNo;
int amount;
int flag = 1;
char input;
double total = 0;
int order[] = {0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}; /*to keep the quantity ordered*/


       /* ini untuk digunakan sebagai funtion getdat*/
            strcpy(item[0].name, food1);
            item[0].price = item1;

            strcpy(item[1].name, food2);
            item[1].price = item2;

            strcpy(item[2].name, food3);
            item[2].price = item3;

            strcpy(item[3].name, food4);
            item[3].price = item4;

            strcpy(item[4].name, food5);
            item[4].price = item5;

            strcpy(item[5].name, food6);
            item[5].price = item6;

            strcpy(item[6].name, beverage7);
            item[6].price = item7;

            strcpy(item[7].name, beverage8);
            item[7].price = item8;

      printf("\t\t\tSELAMAT DATANG KE RESTORAN HIFI'S\n\t\t\t\     SENARAI MENU\n");
      printf("\t\t\tMenu \t\t\t   Harga\n");

/*output menu di skrin*/

      for ( i = 0; i < 8; i++)

            printf("\t\t\t%d:   %s\t        $%.2f\n",i+1,item[i].name,     item[i].price);

/*prompt user for selection : item & type*/
      printf("\nSila Maukkan Pilihan Anda : Item No [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] :  ");
      scanf("\n%d", &ItemNo);
      printf("\nsila Masukkan Jumlah Pesanan :  ");

      scanf("\n%d", &amount);
      printf("\nIngin Membuat Pesanan Lagi?(Y/N):");
      order[ItemNo-1] = order[ItemNo-1] + amount;
      /*getchar selepas input enter di masukkan*/

      /*pemeriksaan input yang dimasukkan*/
      if (input == 'Y' || input == 'y')
            flag = 1;
            flag = 0;

      while (flag);

/*print resit untuk pembayaran*/

for ( i = 0; i < 8; i++)
      /*if order[i] == 0;*/
/*jumlah i akan bertambah 1 dan akan bertambah mengikut pesanan*/
            if (order[i] != 0)
            switch (i+1)
                        case 1 :
                                     printf("\n%d  Plain Egg\t = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 2.50*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 2.5*order[i];
                        case 2 :
                                     printf("\n%d  Bacon and Egg = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 3.45*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 3.45*order[i];
                        case 3 :
                                     printf("\n%d  Muffin\t = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 2.20*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 2.20*order[i];
                        case 4 :
                                     printf("\n%d  French Toast\t = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 2.95*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 2.95*order[i];
                        case 5 :
                                     printf("\n%d  Fruit Basket\t = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 3.45*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 3.45*order[i];
                        case 6 :
                                     printf("\n%d  Cereal\t = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 0.70*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 0.70*order[i];
                        case 7 :
                                     printf("\n%d  Coffee\t = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 1.50*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 1.50*order[i];
                        default :
                                     printf("\n%d  Tea\t\t = $ %.2f\n", order[i], 1.80*order[i]);
                                     total = total + 1.80*order[i];
printf ("\n\nTotal Price\t = $ %.2f", total);
printf("\n\nTax 5%% \t\t = $ %.2f\n",tax);
printf("\nAmount Due \t = $ %.2f\n",total+tax);
return 0;


Network Protocol
Ethereal Software (Networking Analyze Tools)
Ethereal as many knows is an packet analyzer that capture networks packets and occasionally display the data required as detail as it can be according to the filter option set earlier. Thus we can say that it has a capable to analyze traffic, detecting an ip along with device map address and much more. It operated just like voltmeter that measuring device to examine what is going on inside electric cable but at a high level of examination. In several years, it turn out that Ethereal has become one of the best open source networking analyzer available today. People also known Ethereal as a network manager.
It is the most common tool to captured or analyze packet data on network and it almost available to all sort of operating system from window to unix base operating system.
Ethereal Purpose
There are many purpose for people to used Ethereal today to shorten the work hour and man power, listed below are some of the purposes of Ethereal :
§  For network admin to analyze traffic to detect problems occurred
§  Developer of software to debug IP protocol while implement application
§  Network technician can learn network protocol or can be a teaching material
Below is a features that Ethereal had to be the best software in market, but it is still technically a beta software that had features beyond it production:
§  All data can be capture from a live network including wireless networking
§  Live data can be read from Ethernet, fddi, token and much more.
§  There are 759 protocols been inserted in to Ethereal and  more are coming
§  All major CISCO protocol or decoder been supported
§  Filters packets for many criteria
§  All the data can be colorize according to need of color code.
§  All data can be save or printed and can be refined using a display filter

In modern protocol design, network protocols are "layered" according to the OSI 7 layer model or similar layered models. Layering is a design principle which divides the protocol design into a number of smaller parts, each of accomplishes a particular sub-task, and interacts with the other parts of the protocol only in a small number of well-defined ways. Layering allows the parts of a protocol to be designed and tested without a combinatorial explosion of cases, keeping each design relatively simple. Layering also permits familiar protocols to be adapted to unusual circumstances.
A wide variety of network communication protocols exist, which are defined by many standard organizations worldwide and technology vendors over years of technology evolution and developments. One of the most popular protocol suites is TCP/IP , which is the heart of Internetworking communications. The IP, the Internet Protocol, is responsible for exchanging information between routers so that the routers can select the proper path for network traffic, while TCP is responsible to ensure the data packets are transmitted across the network reliably and error free. LAN and WAN protocols are also critical protocols in the network communications.LAN protocols suite is for the physical and data link layers communications over various LAN media such as Ethernet wires and wireless waves.WAN protocol suite is for the lowest three layers and defines communication over various wide-area media such as fiber optic and cable.
The OSI 7 layers model has clear characteristics. Layers 7 through 4 deal with end to end communications between data source and destinations. Layers 3 to 1 deal with communications between network devices. 
On the other hand, the seven layers of the OSI model can be divided into two groups: upper layers (layers 7, 6 & 5) and lower layers (layers 4, 3, 2, 1). The upper layers of the OSI model deal with application issues and generally are implemented only in software. The highest layer, the application layer, is closest to the end user. The lower layers of the OSI model handle data transport issues. The physical layer and the data link layer are implemented in hardware and software. The lowest layer, the physical layer, is closest to the physical network medium (the wires, for example) and is responsible for placing data on the medium.

As illustration above ,we can see where are those protocol placed inside the osi layer.

TCP protocol
TCP/IP is a suite of protocols first established in 1982 by DCA and ARPA and quickly adopted by the Department of Defense. It was created so that different computer networks could have a common language to talk to one another with. The pentagon originally wanted the internet to be a network which would not breakdown in the event of a nuclear attack, and TCP/IP was the first time computer networks were connected to one another to truly form the internet as we view it today. TCP/IP includes not only Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), but also other protocols such as User Datagram Format (UDP).
The TCP protocol can found on transport layer where it combine with UDP protocol which reliable to handle a different application. This layer is mainly responsible for many things in network and provided some critical need to the layer. At this layer, accept data from above and below it and provides service for the layer above them. The transport layer must create a connection of the type needed by the session layer for each connection requested by the session layer. It is up to this layer to re-size the data from above, by breaking the larger size into smaller packet that fit within packet for this layer. Then, the next layer which is session layer re-creates and assembled all the smaller packet into 1 large size.
As shown below in data diagram that capture by Ethereal that only using TCP protocol, we can analyze all the traffic once the Ethereal captured the raw data. Once the device is connected to the network, and there are an activity on the network such as browsing the internet, file transferring and any activities that relates to networking, the Ethereal will capture the raw data and display according to the option of the filter that been choose early.

The default columns will show some basic information according what has been captured:
·         No. Number of packet in capture file
·         Time. The timestamp of the packet
·         Source The address where this packet is coming from
·         Destination The address where this packet is going to
·         Protocol The protocol name in a short
·         Info Additional information about the packet content
On the below column it show more detailed of selected packet list. The protocols and the fields of the packet are displayed using a tree, which can be expanded and collapsed. Some protocol fields are specially displayed.
·         Generated fields Ethereal itself will generate additional protocol fields which are surrounded by brackets. The information in these fields is derived from the known context to other packets in the capture file. For example, Ethereal is doing a sequence/acknowledge analysis of each TCP stream, which is displayed in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] fields of the TCP protocol.
·         Links If Ethereal detected a relationship to another packet in the capture file, it will generate a link to that packet. Links are underlined and displayed in blue. If double-clicked, Ethereal jumps to the corresponding packet.

The above data shown that the protocol it use, the destination of the source, the transmission protocol and address of device which in this case connected by wireless network.

The packet bytes shows data of the current packet or the selected packet in hexdump style and as usual, the left is the offset data, the middle shown in hexadecimal and on the right corresponding to ASCII are displayed.
Referring data given below, it shown that the host device address is as a source and it connected to a various networking while connecting to the network, such as web surfing ,data sharing or even and activities by firewall or antivirus or any other application using the network. TCP resemble as a main hub to transfer data while connecting throughout the network via wireless or cable.

UDP protocol
UDP protocol is an unreliable connectionless protocol, where it does not check for errors or even to see if the transmitted data was received. It has lower overhead and is thus faster than TCP. UDP protocol will provide necessary throughput on a network. USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP) can be defined as a simple OSI protocol for all client or server network based on IP. It is essential to TCP and one of the oldest protocol that been use since 1980. It is often used for video conferencing or even an online game that uniquely tuned for performance. To get better result, it allows packets to be dropped  and  UDP  packets receive in a different order than they were sent as dictated by the application. Domain Name service, Trivial File Transfer Protocol and Simple Network Management protocol all use UDP
UDP protocol  header consist of 4 fields of 2 bytes each:
·         Source port number
·         Destination port
·         Datagram size
·         Checksum
This unique protocol provides a procedure for application programs to send message to other programs with a minimum of protocol mechanism. The protocol is transaction oriented, and delivery and duplicate protection are not guaranteed. It requiring ordered reliable delivery of streams of data should use the TCP.
As TCP protocol, UDP also can be found in transport layer where both of this protocol combine to handle different application and workload. Therefore, in this layer server critical elements to the next layer in OSI layer.

Shown in the above data, packets were captured while the computer accessing a certain protocol. In this case the Ethereal were set to capture data that involved only with UDP protocol. As mention above, normally UDP were used to tackle video conferencing and online gaming. Thus according to the diagram, the host connecting to a certain website or networking that using the UDP protocol such as facebook and youtube  and as we know, the UDP protocol are moving along with TCP protocol as it as a main function to the network.

UDP allow different application to maintain their own channels for data similar to TCP, and UDP port valid port numbers are range from 0 to 65535. On this data details it show that the source port for the UDP protocol were from 62656 which are from domain. It’s almost the same result with TCP protocol, only that is stated at the below that it’s using UDP protocol, instead of TCP protocol. It count the total number bytes contained in header and data section.

ICMP protocol
ICMP is network protocol useful in IP management and administration, it’s required the element of IP implementation, and it been control protocol which it did not carry application data but only the info about the network itself.
ICMP can be used for reporting regarding:
·         errors on communication network application
·         detection remote hosts
·         network traffic congested
Each ICMP message is encapsulated directly within a single IP datagram and like UDP, ICMP is unreliable. Although the message are contained IP datagrams, the message are usually can be a special case from normal processing, rather than as a normal sub protocol.
ICMP normally use by routers, host to communicate errors to retrieve some information from the other host. It contains 3 fields to define it purpose and provide a checksum, they are type, code and checksum fields.
Below are some of the message generated while using ICMP protocol:
·         Echo request and reply known as PING
·         Destination unreachable, while this message occurred, type 3 ICMP is generated the value code can be form 0 – 15.
·         Source Quench has a type field of 4 and code 0
·         Time exceed is when a host discard a packet due to a time-out
There are many more message can be generated depend on the request command.
The best example for the implementation of this protocol is a common command that to test the availability of the network which is connected or not. The tools are ping command and  traceroute command. According to data below, the activities are more like to test the connection of the network with the user applying the command ping to test the network. The source command ping are from the address and the destination ping is to which is if using domain ( lookup we can determine the IP is belong to google search engine.

The 1st packet content the basic information about current activities that were captured where the first column indicate the host were pinging to request info about the network to the destination which are the google search engine throughout internet and the 2nd column show that the destination had sending back the info about the network and reply as the network is alive. And the 2nd row of information is the same with TCP and UDP except the below indicate that it were looking for the ICMP protocol only. On normal term, all the packet data shown above is at the same level where only the slide change were the filtering option that can be set according to the what protocol to be tested.

MAC Broadcast
MAC address is a unique identity to network devices use for communicate in the network usch as NRIC either wired of wireless. Available in most network technologies including Ethernet. Thus, MAC are use in media access control protocol of the OSI model.
MAC broadcast protocol can be found in the 3rd layer of OSI layer which is the network layer. At this layer, this is where the IP is converted to a MAC address to be recognize when a packet is sent to the final hop to where ever it is going.
On the Ethereal capture process, a certain command can be applied to capture the MAC broadcast by a target host using MAC address or IP. One of the command that can be use is “ether host “. By using Ethereal packet sniffer, network administrator can analyze and detect network traffic by MAC address to find which host are currently broadcasting in network. Below shown that one of the pc is currently broadcasting to the internet to a certain destination, thus indicate that that particular host are broadcasting something either it’s a virus, data miner or some sort of internet worm.

For host is the Ethereal host that connect to a small office LAN and Wireless networking and observed the host on IP, the diagram indicate that this host is broadcasting over the internet to a specific IP. As mention above, the Ethereal can be useful to detect from where the broadcasting start and where it broadcast to. By using domain tools ( we can know that particular host are broadcasting to the dedicated website or to another host.


Customer classs

   public class Customer {
         String name , plus, regdate ,phoneNum ,ID ;
      //to initialize and declaration//     

         private int PointsBalance;
      public   Customer(String ID, String RegDate, String Name, String PhoneNum, String ADD) {
                   this.ID = ID ;                     //public void to set point balance//
                   this.regdate = RegDate;            //(int PointsBalance//
                   this.phoneNum = PhoneNum ;
          = ADD;
             public String toString() {
             return "\nID = " + ID + "\nRegistration Dates = " +
            regdate + "\nName = " + name+ "\nPhone Number = " +
            phoneNum + "\nAddress = " + plus ;
             public int getPointsBalance(int pointsBalance) {
             return PointsBalance;

CherasOutletCustomer class

 class CherasOutletCustomer extends Customer{
      private  int POINTS = 100 , pointsUsed ;
      public  CherasOutletCustomer(String ID, String RegDate,String Name, String PhoneNum, String ADD , int PointsBalance ) {
            super(ID, RegDate, Name, PhoneNum, ADD);
            setPointsBalance( PointsBalance) ;

      public void setPointsBalance(int PointsBalance) {
            pointsUsed = POINTS - super.getPointsBalance(PointsBalance) ;
            public String toString() {
                  return "\n***Cheras Outlet***" +super.toString() + "\nPoints Used = "+ pointsUsed+"Pts";



CustomerLoyaltyReward class

//xpoint = extreapoint , xvoucherLevel = extravoucherlevel//

public class CustomerLoyaltyReward extends CherasOutletCustomer {
      private int buy , XPoints ;
      private String XVoucherLevel ;
      public CustomerLoyaltyReward(String ID, String RegDate, String Name, String PhoneNum, String ADD, int PointsBalance, int purchases ) {
            super(ID, RegDate, Name, PhoneNum, ADD, PointsBalance);
            setCustomerPurchases (purchases ) ;
   purchases ;
            setExtraPoints() ;

      public void setCustomerPurchases (int purchases ){
            if ( purchases <= 500 )
                   XVoucherLevel = "Less than or equal RM500 - RM5"  ;
          XVoucherLevel ="More than RM500 – RM10" ;
      public void setExtraPoints(){
            if ( buy <= 500 )
                  XPoints= 5  ;
                  XPoints=8 ;
      public String toString() {
            return super.toString() + "\nTotal Purchases = RM" +buy+ "\nDiscount Voucher Level = "+XVoucherLevel+"\nExtra Points Given = "+XPoints+"Pts" ;

Test class

public class test {

      public static void main(String[] args){
            CustomerLoyaltyRewards[] cuslist = new CustomerLoyaltyRewards [3] ;
             cuslist[0]= new CustomerLoyaltyRewards("1235","21 OCT 2010","Ali b. Ahmad Piah","014-5674893" ,"8 simpang 3 lorong haji taib 74367 kuah langkawi", 80,2000) ;
             cuslist[1]= new CustomerLoyaltyRewards("1234","1 Jan 1999","Tan Tin Tun","016-5498736" ,"5 jalan gagak taman mutiara timur 21345 sabah",50,100) ;
             cuslist[2]= new CustomerLoyaltyRewards("1256","12 Mei 2011","Rahu a/l Ramasamy","017-3476253" ,"123 block aman jaya tingkat 4 567483 ipoh",20,300) ;
       static void printCus (Customer[ ]list){
                   for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++)


Software involved :
1 – Eclipse Java
2 – Netbeans Java

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